| John Spacey, February 27, 2016 updated on June 23, 2019
Candor is the act of being open and honest. This can also be a character trait whereby an individual is in the habit of expressing their ideas and emotions without holding back. The following are common types of candor.
HonestyCandor requires saying what you really think and feel without deception such as half-truths.
DirectnessCandor implies that you express things to be short and understandable without using extra words or fancy vocabulary that is less conductive to communication. For example, telling your boss directly that you think their idea will fail.
OpennessCandor is a form of risk taking that calls on an individual to share relevant information whatever the potential impact to themselves. For example, a manager who opposes an HR policy they view as idiotic despite an environment of groupthink whereby opposing anything HR says is likely to have repercussions. Groupthink thrives in an environment of fear and cowardice that suppresses candor.
ForthrightnessCandor is not a passive type of openness whereby you say what you think when asked. It is an active type of openness that charges forward with information where there is a need for communication.
ProbityCandor can be cruel and commonly causes others to lose face. As such, it is destructive if you aren't fair such that you are able to view others in an understanding and kind light.
MuckrakingMuckraking is the act of seeking out scandal, controversy and gossip. These are negative activities aimed at sowing discord or enjoyment of schadenfreude.
MeddlingMeddling is the act of offering your opinion in a situation that doesn't concern you or where you are not at all qualified to offer an opinion. For example, telling an elderly person that their doctor is wrong about a diagnosis because of something you read on a health food blog.
ArtlessnessCandor doesn't require that you say every idea and thought in your head that is uninteresting, uninsightful, insensitive and unoriginal. Candor without intelligence and sensitivity is artlessness.
Asoh DefenseThe asoh defense is the theory that if you are honest about your failures and express regret people are far less likely to punish you. Being the first to identify and profess your failures does appear to be correlated with success in many domains.
NotesCandor is higher risk in a culture that values saving face. This may explain broad differences between nations in areas such as innovation, problem solving, decision making, design and productivity.
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