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11 Examples of a Non-Example

 , November 15, 2019
A non-example is a sample of something that is not included in a concept. As with examples, these are used as explanatory devices. The following are illustrative examples.

Culture

Culture is any aspect of life that emerges spontaneously amongst groups of people.
Example
A street dance such as hip hop dance or dubstep.

Non-example
A government bureaucracy that implements centrally planned rules and regulations.

Rational Numbers

A rational number is any number that can be expressed as a fraction of two integers.
Example
1/2 = 0.5 is a rational number

Non-example
Any irrational number that can't be expressed as a fraction such as the constant π or 3.14 (rounded to two decimals).

Analysis

Analysis is the process of breaking things into their component parts in order to understand them.
Example
A student takes apart a mechanical toy to see how it works.

Non-example
An architect who looks at the entire form of a building to evaluate its aesthetic appeal. Thinking that considers things as a whole is known as holism or systems thinking.

Data

Data is the representation of meaning in a form that is useful to processing and analysis.
Example
An accelerometer sensor in a smart phone that produces numerical information based on the rate of change of velocity of the device. This is used to record and action events such as the user tilting the phone forward quickly.

Non-example
A painting created with the free expression of an artist that communicates emotion or information that may be ambiguous, open to interpretation and nuanced.

Bias

A bias is a pattern of thinking that leads to repeated failures of rational thought.
Example
Cherry picking is the practice of choosing evidence that supports your opinion as opposed to evaluating all evidence with the goal of "proving" that you're right.

Non-example
Objectivity is the process of weighing all evidence to try to reach reasonable conclusions.

Humility

Humility is a state of high self-confidence such that you don't actively seek recognition, social status and validation from others.
Example
Giving credit to others when you are praised.

Non-example
Virtue signalling whereby an individual regularly preaches a cause and criticizes others in a bid to elevate their own fragile self-image.

Matter

Matter is any physical substance that occupies space.
Example
The human body is an example of matter.

Non-example
Energy such as light and sound, vacuums such as outer space, forces such as gravity, thoughts such as memories and information such as a concept are all non-examples of matter.

Word

A word is a unit of language that has a meaning, pronunciation, spelling and associated rules of grammar.
Example
Mottainai, or 勿体無い, is a word in the Japanese language that roughly corresponds to the English "what a waste." For example, if a professor hears that a brilliantly creative student has accepted a job with a terrible company that produces backward products she might proclaim "Mottainai!"

Non-example
People commonly think in pictures, emotions or movements that don't correspond to words such as an emotion you experience independently of verbal thought or speech.

Economy

An economy is a system for producing, distributing and storing value.
Example
A capitalist economy is a system of free markets and property rights whereby agents freely offer products, services and labor to the market and are able to keep any value they capture.

Non Example
Play is an activity that is pursued for joy as opposed to productive aims.

Quality

Quality is the value of something relative to its purpose.
Example
Nutritious baby food that tastes good and is free of harmful additives.

Non-example
Baby food that tastes bad, is not nutritious or contains chemical contaminants not suitable for human consumption.

Technology

Technology is any product, service, system, infrastructure, environment or tool that is produced by humans based on scientific knowledge.
Example
A belt that is used to hold up pants with tension.

Non-example
Traditional cuisine such as Scottish lorne sausage is produced by humans but is based on traditional knowledge as opposed to science.

Notes

Unlike counterexamples, non-examples aren't necessarily used to describe the opposite of a concept. For example, a counterexample of happiness is unhappiness whereas a non-example is boredom.
Overview: Non-Example
Type
DefinitionA sample of something that is not included in a concept.
Also Known AsNonexample
Similar ToCounterexample
Opposite OfExample
Related Concepts

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