Industry StandardsIndustry standards for processes, products, services, practices and integration. For example, specifications for standard freight containers that provide compatibility across regions and modes of transportation.
National StandardsStandards that are enforced or offered as a reference by a nation. For example, standards for a nation's electricity infrastructure. Standards are necessary for an advanced economy to coordinate the outputs of many firms and government departments. In some cases, national standards act as a trade barrier because they may require foreign suppliers to offer specialized products and services for your market.
International StandardsStandards that are adopted by many nations. These are essential to economic efficiency, development, growth and quality of life on a global basis. For example, standards for financial exchange between banks that underpin the global economy.
Quality StandardsA broad category of standards for ensuring that processes, products and services conform to specifications. At the top level, quality standards provide a system for managing quality against which an organization can be certified. For example, the International Organization for Standardization 9000:2000 series and the Capability Maturity Model Integration series of standards.
Professional StandardsStandards that can be used to guide a profession such as project management standards that outline processes, practices and a common vocabulary. In many cases, a professional can be certified against a standard based on their career and satisfactory completion of training and/or testing.
Trading StandardsStandards for consumer protection such as a cooling-off period that allows a purchaser to return goods for any reason for a full refund for a certain amount of time. Trading standards may be enforced by a government or adopted on a voluntary basis by an industry or firm.
Employment StandardsIt is common to refer to employment regulations as standards. Such laws typically govern working conditions, recruiting practices, minimum wage, work hours, overtime pay, vacation, public holidays, employee records and other employment practices.
Building CodeStandard rules and specifications for the design and construction of buildings and other structures. Typically enacted as law at the national, regional and/or city level.
Safety StandardsRequirements for the safety of products, services and processes. For example, a toy safety standard that outlines design, testing and labeling requirements to prevent dangerous toys from being sold.
Food StandardsStandards related to food safety and health such as requirements for labeling food products.
Environmental StandardsStandards for environmental stewardship. These can be laws or adopted by an industry or firm on a voluntary basis. For example, a standard for filtering particulate matter from exhaust fumes to improve air quality.
Transportation StandardsTransportation related standards such as specifications for rail track.
Technical StandardsA broad category of standards that establish norms, vocabularies, principles, practices, requirements and specifications for designing, building, operating and maintaining technology. This includes standards for information technology, devices, equipment, machines and infrastructure.
Data StandardsStandards for representing, recording, tracking, exchanging, interpreting, auditing and securing data. For example, a series of specifications for encrypting data in storage.
Information StandardsInformation is data that is meant to be understood by people. Information standards include methods and systems for organizing, representing, sharing and interpreting information. For example, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) system for giving every book a unique number.
Accounting StandardsStandards for the measurement, interpretation, processing, calculation and communication of financial information such as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
Medical StandardsStandards for medical devices, practices and medicines. For example, the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines outlines current medications that are considered effective, safe and important to a health system.
Health StandardsHealth standards such as a specification of air quality levels that are considered safe to dangerous.
A requirement, specification, guideline, vocabulary or method that can be used to improve value, compatibility and consistency.