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9 Types of Experiment Variables

 , July 15, 2018 updated on June 23, 2019
Variables are factors that influence an experiment or that are of interest as a result. These include variables you change to test a hypothesis, variables you measure to determine results and variables you hold constant to produce a valid experiment. The following are the basic types of variable that are relevant to experiments.

Independent Variables

An independent variable is a variable that is changed as part of an experiment. This can be thought of as the test variable. As the name suggests, the independent variable is ideally designed such that it isn't influenced by the other variables in the experiment.

Dependent Variables

A dependent variable is a variable that you predict will change when you change the independent variable. This can be thought of as the results of the experiment.

Extraneous Variables

An extraneous variable is an undesirable variable that influences the outcome of an experiment but isn't of interest to the research.

Situational Variables

A situational variable is an aspect of the environment that may influence the experiment. For example, air quality in a health related experiment.

Subject Variables

A subject variable is an characteristic of subjects being studied in an experiment. For example, the gender of individuals in a health study. Also known as participant variables.

Blocking Variables

A blocking variable is a characteristic of the people conducting the experiment. For example, a plant-based experiment where one researcher is an accomplished gardener and other is terrible with plants.

Control Variables

A control variable is an extraneous variable that you hold constant to produce a valid experiment.

Uncontrolled Variables

Extraneous variables that are uncontrolled in your experiment. For example, a health study that doesn't control the diet of participants.

Confounding Variable

A confounding variable is a variable that influences both the independent variable and the dependent variable. For example, stress may make people smoke more and also directly impacts their health.


An experiment designed to determinate the effect of a fertilizer on plant growth has the following variables:
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Plant height, plant weight, number of leaves
Extraneous Variables
Plant type, sunlight, water, temperature, air quality, wind
Situational Variables
Sunlight, water, temperature, air quality, wind
Subject Variables
[None, only applies to humans not plants.]
Blocking Variables
[None, only one researcher involved]
Control Variables
Plant type, sunlight, water, temperature, wind
Uncontrolled Variables
Air quality
Confounding Variable
The fertilizer is water soluble. As such, over watering could cause the fertilizer to run off and would also impact plant growth. This is controlled by watering plants moderately such that there is no runoff.
Overview: Experiment Variables
Factors that influence an experiment or that are of interest as a result.
Related Concepts


This is the complete list of articles we have written about experiments.
Alternative Hypothesis
Control Group
Dependent Variable
Empirical Evidence
Experiment Design
Experimental Error
Explanatory Power
Natural Experiment
Negative Control
Negative Correlation
Null Hypothesis
Original Research
Positive Control
Positive Correlation
Primary Research
Qualitative Info
Random Assignment
Random Error
Scientific Control
Scientific Fact
Soft Science
Systematic Error
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