Abiotic: not related to or resulting from living things. Absolute zero: the lowest possible temperature at 0 Kelvin, –459.67 °F or –273.15 °C.Acceleration: increase in rate or speed. Accuracy: the degree to which something is true, correct or exact. Acid: a molecule or ion capable of either donating a proton or forming a covalent bond with an electron pair.Alternative hypothesis : an alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis that there is a relationship between variables.Analyze: the process of understanding the whole by looking at its parts.Assert: to explicitly assume or confirm that something is true in a particular context. Attribute: a data item that describes a property of something.Bias: what you expect will happen in a particular situation such as an experiment.Biotic: relating to living organisms.Causation: a relationship between events or states whereby one causes the other. Also known as cause and effect. Cell: the smallest unit of an organism that can live on its own.Chaos Theory: chaos theory is the study of small changes within systems that cause completely different future outcomes to the entire system.Characteristic: a distinguishing quality, trait or property. Chemical Formula: a notation used to show the number and type of atoms present in a molecule.Cohort: a cohort is a group that share a common characteristic.Compound: a substance composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.Conduction: the transfer of energy such as heat or electricity through a substance.Constant: things that don't change in an experiment. Control: a scientific control is the design of experiments to reduce the effects of change other than changes that are specific targets of the experiment.Control Group: a control group is a group in an experiment that receive no treatment or a treatment that has a known effect. Control Variable: a variable that is held constant in an experiment.Correlation: Two variables that move in coordination with each other. Not to be confused with causation. Density: weight per unit of volume.Dependent Variable: a dependent variable is a measurement of interest to an experiment.Electron: a subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity that is found in all atoms.Element: a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances using chemistry. Substances of the same element have the same numbers of protons in their nuclei. Empirical Evidence: information acquired by observation or measurement.Emulsion: a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally unmixable. This results in a dispersion whereby the liquids are still somewhat separated but one is dispersed in the other.Energy: the potential to exert a force.Entropy: entropy is a state of disorder, randomness or uncertainty in a system. Equilibrium: the state in which opposing forces exerted upon an object are balanced.Evidence: observations or measurements that support or refute a hypothesis.Experiment: an experiment is a procedure carried out under controlled conditions to determine the validity of a hypothesis.Experimental error: an unintentional lack of validity that is introduced into research, experiments or observations.Explanatory power: explanatory power is the usefulness of a hypothesis, theory or law. Falsifiability: falsifiability is the requirement that it be possible to disprove a hypothesis with a observation. Field experiment: a field experiment occurs in the real world where it is not possible to control many variables.Force: an influence that pushes or pulls an object.Friction: a force that resists movement of one object over another.Gas: a substance that does not have a definite volume or shape.Gravity: the universal force of attraction acting between all matter.Habitat: the natural home or environment of an organism. Hard science: Hard science is a common term for formal sciences and natural sciences.Hypothesis: a hypothesis is a reasoned explanation that is not yet confirmed with rigorous study such as experiments, observations and peer review.Independent variable: the variable that is changed in an experiment.Inertia: the resistance of an object to change in its velocity.Inference: formal reasoning based on logic; particularly deduction and induction.Insulator: a substance that resists the transfer of heat, electricity or sound.Kelvin: a unit for temperature.Kinetic energy: the energy an object has due to its motion.Liquid: a substance with a consistent volume but free flowing form.Mass: how much matter an object contains. Similar to weight but mass doesn't change with gravity.Matter: any substance with mass and volume.Melting Point: the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid.Metal: a substance with a lustrous appearance when polished that conducts electricity and heat. Mineral: a naturally occurring inorganic solid.Molecule: a group of atoms bonded together.Momentum: mass times velocity. Natural Experiment: a natural experiment is research based on real life occurrences that resemble experiments but are beyond the control of researchers.Negative Control: a negative control is the practice of assigning a group in an experiment to a treatment that is expected to have no effect.Neutron: a subatomic particle present in all elements except ordinary hydrogen.Nucleus: the center of an atom or cell.Null Hypothesis: the null hypothesis is the prediction that there is no relationship between variables.Observation: the acquisition of information from a primary source.Organism: life that functions as an individual entity. pH: a scale for expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.Photon: a type of elementary particle found in electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves. Positive control: a positive control is the practice of assigning a group in an experiment to a treatment that has a known effect.Precision: degree of exactness and accuracy.Prediction: a statement of expected future results.Pressure: perpendicular force per unit area.Principle: generally accepted theories and laws with broad explanatory power.Probability theory: mathematics for the analysis of random phenomena. A basis for statistics.Qualitative: data that is obtained from humans and other sources aren't particularly exact. Qualitative data is often nonnumerical or roughly translated into numbers such as rankings.Quantitative: numerical information such as data from a sensor.Radiation: the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or moving subatomic particles.Random assignment: random assignment is the practice of using random processes to assign members to groups in an experiment.Random error: invalid procedures or inaccurate observations caused by unknown and unpredictable changes in an experiment.Research: a systematic investigation.Retrospective Cohort: an observational study based on groups formed before the study began.Scientific Law: statements, based on repeated research, that describe or predict phenomena. The term scientific law doesn't imply knowledge is certain and unchanging.Scientific Method: research based on careful observation, rigorous skepticism and falsifiable hypotheses. Semiconductors: a material that can conduct electricity under some conditions.Soft Science: soft science is a colloquial term for fields that are perceived as demonstrating less methodological rigor, exactitude and objectivity than the formal and natural sciences.Solid: a state of matter whereby a substance has a definite volume and form that resists deformation to some degree.Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances .Substance: matter with uniform properties and composition.Symbiosis: interaction between organisms that is typically to the advantage of both.System: a system is a complex collection of elements that interact to perform a function.Systematic Error: an error inherent in a system. For example, a sensor that is producing inaccurate readings.Testability: the ease with which a hypothesis can be tested by an experiment.Theory: a scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of the world. A theory can contain multiple scientific laws.Thermal: related to temperature.Trial: a test or experiment.Unit: any standard used for comparing measurements.Variable: anything that can change.Velocity: the rate of change in the position of an object with respect to a frame of reference.Viscosity: resistance of a liquid or gas to a change in shape.Volume: the amount of space occupied by a substance.