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12 Examples of Data Literacy

Data literacy is the ability to understand, interpret, critique, analyze and communicate data. The following are illustrative examples.

Data Comprehension

Basic comprehension of data related terms and conventions of data visualization. For example, knowing the difference between a median and an average or a visualization that is at log or linear scale.

Cause & Effect

Knowledge related to cause and effect such as the idea that correlation doesn't equal causation.

Fallacies & Biases

Knowledge of common fallacies related to data such as the prosecutors fallacy.

Critical Thinking

The ability to question logic supported with data. For example, the ability to evaluate if a sample size is large enough to be statistically significant.

Scientific Method

Knowledge of the scientific method such as experiment controls. This is required to properly analyze data or perform research. For example, the principle that you must have a hypothesis first before running an experiment as opposed to fitting your hypothesis to the data afterwards.


An ability to investigate and model the nuances of data. For example, a survey question framed two different ways may lead to completely different results.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is the practice of interpreting data. For example, the process of identifying and resolving data quality issues.

Statistical Analysis

Statistics is the mathematics of data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation. For example, the ability to develop and validate a statistical model that can be used to forecast monthly sales for a product.

Data Visualization

The ability to visual data in a way that accurately communicates meaning without being misleading.


The ability to analyze and communicate the context of data. For example, a marketing person investigating the sales impact of different promotional campaigns who considers context such as the prices or holidays that also influence sales.

Data Communication

The ability to tell a story with data without being misleading.

Data Tools

The ability to use data related applications productively in areas such as analytics, business intelligence and database query languages.
Overview: Data Literacy
The ability to understand, interpret, critique, analyze and communicate data.
Related Concepts


This is the complete list of articles we have written about data.
Abstract Data
Atomic Data
Big Data
Cohort Analysis
Dark Data
Data Analysis
Data Architecture
Data Attribute
Data Cleansing
Data Collection
Data Complexity
Data Consumer
Data Control
Data Corruption
Data Custodian
Data Degradation
Data Dredging
Data Entity
Data Federation
Data Integration
Data Integrity
Data Liberation
Data Lineage
Data Literacy
Data Loss
Data Management
Data Massage
Data Migration
Data Mining
Data Owner
Data Producer
Data Quality
Data Remanence
Data Risks
Data Rot
Data Science
Data Security
Data States
Data Transformation
Data Uncertainty
Data Veracity
Data View
Data Virtualization
Data Volume
Data Wipe
Decision Support
Deep Magic
Empirical Evidence
Event Data
Hard Data
Information Assurance
Legacy Data
Machine Data
Market Research
Master Data
Misuse of Statistics
Personal Data
Personal Information
Predictive Analytics
Primary Data
Primary Research
Qualitative Data
Qualitative Info
Quantitative Data
Raw Data
Reference Data
Small Data
Soft Data
Source Data
Statistical Analysis
Statistical Population
Structured Data
Transaction Processing
Transactional Data
Types Of Data
Unstructured Data
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Statistical Analysis

A list of basic statistical analysis techniques.


An overview of how to calculate quartiles with a full example.

Misuse of Statistics

Patterns of mistakes in statistics.


A definition of cohort with examples.

Natural Experiment

The definition of natural experiment with examples.

Random Error

The definition of random error with examples.

Positive Correlation

The definition of positive correlation with examples and comparisons.

Negative Correlation

The definition of negative correlation with examples.

Alternative Hypothesis

The definition of alternative hypothesis with examples.

Secondary Research

The definition of secondary research with examples.

Statistical Analysis

A list of basic statistical analysis techniques.

Cohort Analysis

An overview of cohort analysis.


A definition of analytics with examples.

Continuous Data vs Discrete Data

The difference between continuous and discrete data.

Hypothesis Types

The common types of hypothesis with examples.


The common types of error with examples.

Structured Data

An overview of structured data with examples.

Regression Analysis

An overview of regression analysis with examples.
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