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What is the Fallacy Of Composition?

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The fallacy of composition is an assumption that something has the same properties as its parts. This assumption is often wrong as can easily be illustrated in examples:
Airplanes are made of composite materials
Composite materials are light
Therefore, aircraft are light
All cells are aquatic
All organisms are composed of cells
Therefore, all organisms are aquatic
Silicon and metals can't do math
Microchips are made of silicon and metals
Therefore, microchips can't do math
A runner who runs faster can win the race
If all runners run faster they can all win the race
In many cases, the composition fallacy is less than obvious. For example, many people might agree with a statement such as "a company that hires smart people makes smart decisions." However, due to factors such as the Abilene Paradox, such a statement isn't generally valid.
Overview: Fallacy Of Composition
The assumption that things have the same properties as their parts.
Related Concepts
Next: False Analogy
More fallacies:
Abilene Paradox
Bait & Switch
Beg the Question
Catch 22
Cognitive Biases
Complexity Bias
Creeping Normality
False Analogy
False Balance
False Dichotomy
Hindsight Bias
Nirvana Fallacy
Red Herring
Sour Grapes
Survivorship Bias
More ...
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