Gold production is the mining and refining of gold from deposits in the Earth. Due to the relatively high value of gold, this is often a technologically advanced process that makes use of chemicals. For example, gold cyanidation is a common hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore using aqueous solutions of cyanide. This has resulted in several environmental disasters such as the 2000 Baia Mare cyanide spill in Romania. The following are production levels of gold by country.
|Rank||Country||Mine Production (metric tons)|
|15||Papua New Guinea||70|
ReservesReserves are estimates of economically extractable gold given current known deposits and mining technologies. These change with time as gold is extracted and new deposits are found. The following are current estimates of gold reserves for major gold producing nations.
|Country||Mine Production (metric tons)||Reserves (metric tons)|
|Papua New Guinea||70||1,000|
NotesAll data is 2019.
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ReferencesUnited States Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2020Hilson, Gavin, and A. J. Monhemius. "Alternatives to cyanide in the gold mining industry: what prospects for the future?." Journal of Cleaner production 14.12-13 (2006): 1158-1167.Hudson, Chris. "The role of international environmental law in the protection of the Danube river basin: the Baia Mare cyanide spill." Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 12 (2001): 367.
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