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50 Types of Science

 , June 17, 2019 updated on August 07, 2020
Science is the systematic and objective pursuit of knowledge based on falsifiable predictions that are testable by experiment or observation. While science seeks truth, it is always open to challenge based on verifiable facts. A scientific theory or law may be widely accepted and verified such that it is true for all practical purposes. However, it is never considered final and permanent such that it may be challenged by new findings. The following are the branches of science with examples of each.

Formal Science

Formal sciences are systems of knowledge based on abstract concepts represented by symbols such that they are widely applicable to other sciences. These are often based on proofs such that these systems are internally correct with a high degree of certainty.
Computer Science
Logic
Mathematics
Statistics
Systems Science

Natural Science

Natural science is the use of science to understand the physical world. As these sciences deal with physical and observable phenomena these are considered hard science whereby the standard of proof is very high to have a theory accepted. Compliance with the scientific method is relatively high in the natural sciences with peer review and reproducibility required for acceptance of a theory.
Astronomy
Atmospheric Sciences
Biochemistry
Biology
Chemistry
Earth Science
Geography
Geology
Materials Science
Oceanography
Paleontology
Physics
Zoology

Applied Science

The use of science to solve real world problems. This is considered with the discovery of know-how and development of actionable plans using foundational knowledge created by formal sciences and natural sciences. For example, an architect who uses physics, mathematics and material science to determine the wind load the facade of a building can tolerate.
Aeronautical Engineering
Agricultural Science
Applied Mathematics
Applied Physics
Architecture
Bioengineering
Chemical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Computer Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Environmental Science
Forensic Science
Health Science
Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Medicine
Pharmacology
Physical Therapy
Space Science
Spatial Science
Veterinary Medicine

Social Science

Social science is the study of societies and individuals. This is considered a soft science whereby theories may be based on informal logic, imprecise measurement or studies that lack scientific rigor. In fields such as psychology, it is common for studies that do conform to the scientific method to fail to be verified by subsequent studies†.
Anthropology
Archaeology
Cognitive Science
Communication Science
Economics
Human Geography
Library Science
Linguistics
Political Science
Psychology
Sociology

Notes

The list above isn't exhaustive.

Science

This is the complete list of articles we have written about science.
Animals
Chemical Change
Cold
Engineering
Experiments
Falsifiability
Geology
Hard Science
Hot Things
Inertia
Matter
Measurement
Nature
Nature vs Nurture
Oceans
Physical Properties
Physics
Radio Waves
Research Design
Science Topics
Science Vocabulary
Slow Things
Soft Science
Space
Speed Of Light
Water
More ...
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References

†Maxwell, Scott E., Michael Y. Lau, and George S. Howard. "Is psychology suffering from a replication crisis? What does “failure to replicate” really mean?." American Psychologist 70.6 (2015): 487.

Biology

An overview of biology with examples.

Hard Science

A list of the hard sciences.

Physics

A list of the branches of physics.

Science Topics

An overview of common science topics.

Science Vocabulary

An a-z list of important words in science with straightforward definitions.

Soft Science

The definition of soft science with a list of its basic characteristics.

Theory

An overview of the characteristics of a good theory.

Experiments

A guide to designing and conducting experiments.

Research

The common types of research.

Space

A few topics relevant to space, space research and industry.

Statistical Analysis

A list of basic statistical analysis techniques.
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