A systematic error is a repeatable error that is built into the design of an experiment or system. They are introduced by an inherent flaw as opposed to random error. The following are common types of systematic error.
EquipmentInaccurate equipment such as an poorly calibrated scale.
EnvironmentEnvironmental factors such as temperature variations that cause incorrect readings of the volume of a liquid.
ProcessesIncorrect processes and procedures such as a process for weighing potted plants that subtracts the weight of the pot and the soil but not the current water content of the soil.
CalculationsCalculations that are incorrect. For example, use of an incorrect constant, formula or computation method.
SoftwareSoftware bugs or incorrect use of software. For example, a spreadsheet that truncates or rounds values in a column.
Data SourcesProcessing the wrong data. For example, mislabeling a column of data in a system or data artifact. Incorrect data processing such as a graph that is incorrectly generated that is used as the basis of analysis.
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