Target users may be selected for a particular analysis such that they aren't necessarily reflective of your overall target market. As such, these terms aren't at all synonymous. Target user relates to design, user experience, user analysis and business analysis. For example, your target market may be all smartphone users but your target users for a particular analysis may be users who are over 70 years old with limited experience with smartphones.
Job RoleThe role of the user in an organization.
DepartmentTargeting users in a particular department, business unit or team.
Customer TypeUsing characteristics of the customer such as loyal customers.
Lead UsersAdvanced or influential users.
User NeedsUser needs such as users who need a particular product function.
User GoalsUser goals such as users who use your product for business productivity.
User PreferencesThings the user prefers such as simple versus powerful interfaces.
User PerceptionsUser perceptions of products such as users who find smartphones difficult to use.
Context of UseThe environment and situation of use such as users who use a product outdoors.
User RoleDifferent roles such as administrators or users assigned to a particular task.
LanguagePreferred language such as Spanish speaking users in the United States.
DemographicsDemographic factors such as age.
ProfessionUsers in a profession or occupation.
PsychographicsPsychographics such as interests and attitudes.