Next: Social Facts
The process of learning how to interact with others socially.
Individuals, groups, institutions and experiences that play a role in socialization.
The shared meaning and behavior that emerges in groups.
The institutions, systems and relationships that organize a society.
Durable features of a society such as a family that provide stability and structure.
A society that functions according to established processes, policies and norms.
Unwritten rules, expectations and shared behaviors that emerge in groups.
A position or status in society that creates a duty and set of responsibilities.
What society owes the individual.
Things that an individual can decide for themselves without the interference of society.
Emphasis on individual rights and freedoms over the interests of society.
Prioritizing society over the individual such that everyone is required to do what is decided by power structures.
The degree of unity and cooperation in a society.
The support an individual can rely upon from others in society such as their family, friends and community.
Elements of society that are sustained over multiple generations.
The processes such as culture, technological innovation and politics that change society.
A sense of self-concept derived from membership in various social groups or categories.
The ability to influence and thrive within a culture.
The capacity of society to regulate and shape group and individual behavior.
An approach to sociology that views social reality as constructed with language.
A concept that is created, developed and maintained by society.
Observable realities invented by society that constrain the individual.
Behavior and beliefs that violate social norms, values or rules.
The respect that one person commands from others in a society based on factors such as wealth, power and prestige.
A tendency for societies to form hierarchies of power and privilege.
Large social groups such as the upper class, middle class and working class that are defined by social status, economic position and culture.
Social pressure to conform to consensus views.
A tendency to reduce effort when part of a group.
The ability to shape or control social processes and the resources of society.
Advantages and benefits a person has in a society. Not necessarily unearned but often presented as such.
The capacity of groups to share concepts, beliefs, values and goals.
A sociological theory that class struggle will overthrow capitalism whereby the state will take over all capital and force absolute equality. The basis for communism.
The idea that there are no universal truths only subjective interpretations.
The view that cultures can’t be understood from the outside with any type of universal or common criteria.
The emergence of culture in relatively small groups within a society.
A broad trend in social sciences centered around relativism whereby features of society such as language are viewed as a means of social control.
A sociological theory that views society in terms of power structures whereby every feature of society is intended as a form of social control imposed by an elite.
The capacity of individuals and groups to shape society, communities, culture and other aspects of life. This is downplayed by critical theory that views the masses as hapless victims of power structures.
A sense of isolation an individual experiences in relation to society, culture, community and others in general.
Social contract theory
The theory that individuals surrender some rights and freedoms to society in exchange for the benefits of society.