Specialization of labor is the division of work into different roles. This has benefits for productivity, efficiency, quality and scale. Specialization allows for big problems to be tackled with the efforts of many participants. It is productive because participants can be selected that have knowledge, talent and cultural capital suited to each role. The following are illustrative examples of the specialization of labor.
Most, if not all, traditional economies specialize labor in one way or another. For example, it is common for men and women to play different economic roles in a traditional economy. The Maasai people of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania assign the work of grazing cattle and defending the herd from predators to men. Maasai women are responsible for a broad range of tasks that include building and repairing homes, milking and collecting firewood.
The industrial economy typically divides labor using processes composed of a series of stages and steps. Workers learn a stage of the process and are assigned to that stage for a period of time. In this way, workers quickly become skilled at their work. However, this can be uninteresting as work quickly feels repetitive. As such, firms may rotate teams and individuals to different stages of the process.
RolesManagement and knowledge workers are typically specialized into roles. For example, everyone in an IT team may have a different job description with knowledge and skills that are suitable to their role.
ResponsibilitiesThe role of knowledge workers and managers tends to be dynamic such that they assume new responsibilities with time. This allows an individual to grow and acquire new talents.
Goals & ObjectivesKnowledge workers typically are given goals and objectives that further divide work into specialized missions.Firms are typically structured into divisions, departments and teams that each have specialized goals. For example, a firm may have teams such as executive management, human resources, accounting, operations, marketing, sales and information technology that all contribute in different ways to the firm's mission.
TradeTrade between nations can be viewed as a type of specialization. If one nation is efficient at producing coffee and another efficient at producing corn, it makes sense for these nations to trade coffee for corn.
OutsourcingOutsourcing business processes to partners in a form of specialization. For example, a fashion company that outsources most of its information technology functions to a technology company. This allows both firms to specialize in areas of competitive advantage.
Acquiring materials, parts, components, products and services from other firms is a form of specialization. For example, a bicycle manufacturer that sources tires from a partner.A value added reseller is a firm that adds something to the products and services of another firm. For example, a bicycle rental service is essentially taking a product and providing it as a service. This is a form of specialization as the service doesn't need to know anything about manufacturing bicycles and the manufacturer doesn't need to know about the complexities of managing a rental service.
SummaryThe separation of work into highly specialized roles. Allows organizations to handle highly complex work efficiently.
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