A private IP address is a numerical identifier that is used by software and hardware to communicate in a private network. Private IPs are intended to be unreachable by public networks such as the internet. The following are common examples of a private IP.
A special IP that a machine uses to communicate to itself. This can have implications for security and bandwidth usage as you typically want to avoid using the internet to communicate to local software and devices. The IPs 127.0.0.1 to 127.255.255.255 are reserved for loopback. It is a common convention to use 127.0.0.1 and a host known as "localhost." Services that are local to a host typically bind to this IP on different ports.
Home NetworkA private network in the home that connects devices such as computers, TVs, printers, data storage, appliances, game systems, streaming media and communication tools. It is increasingly common for homes to have dozens or perhaps hundreds of devices that connect through a router. In this scenario, each device has its own private IP. A network for a single geographical location such as an office that is configured to communicate internally by private IP.
A network that connects multiple buildings at the same location often using private IPs.
Metropolitan Area NetworkA network that connects multiple locations across a city. For example, a company might set up a private network that allows dozens of offices in the same city to communicate using private IPs.
A network that spans an area larger than a city. A private wide area network can be used to connect facilities such as offices, schools, data centers and retail locations across a nation or region using private IPs.
Telecom NetworksTelecom companies may use a large number of private IP addresses to address customer devices. These are then translated to shared public IP addresses by a network address translator. This approach, known as carrier-grade NAT, is employed to conserve public IPv4 addresses that are in short supply.
Cloud Infrastructure & ColocationHosts in a data center may be grouped into private networks that can communicate using assigned private IPs. In some cases, providers of cloud infrastructure or colocation charge a lower rate for bandwidth using private IPs over private networks provisioned by the provider.
NotesThe following addresses are reserved for private IP.
Unlike public IP addresses, the private IPs above can be reused many times by different private networks.
|Range||Number of Addresses|
|10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255||16,777,216|
|172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 ||1,048,576|
|192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 ||65,536|
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