EthosInfluencing with authority or reference to an authority.
PathosAn appeal to emotion.
LogosInfluencing with logical arguments.
Anticipating objectionsConsidering how people will react and planning to handle it.
Asking for permissionAsking for permission to interject or to offer an opinion.
SignalingTrying to convey that you have social status or virtue.
CountersignalingDownplaying yourself as a show of confidence.
ProvokingDesigning statements to provoke a vivid response.
Devil's AdvocateDefending an unpopular opinion you don't really believe in order to encourage productive thought and debate.
ComposureNot allowing others to disrupt your personal presence and calm.
EmpathyFeeling what others feel.
SympathyShowing that you care without directly sharing an emotion.
CivilityThe process of politely resolving differences within the rules of a society and culture.
Creative tensionCreating disharmony and tension in order to resolve things or spark creativity.
Call to actionDirectly requesting that the audience take a specific action.
NudgesSubtle suggestions that avoid being commanding.
Active silenceThe purposeful use of silence in communication.
Active constructive respondingProviding encouraging feedback in a responsive and engaged way.
Emotion labelingIdentifying emotions in a non-judgmental way e.g. "so you feel sad about it."
Active listeningDoing things to show that you're listening.
Listening with intent to understandA more advanced technique than active listening that involves actually trying to fully understand someone including the emotions or strategies behind words.
Half-listeningScanning for something you need to know or respond to without really listening. Important where communication is mostly meaningless.
PolitenessUsing formal language and following norms to show consideration and respect to others.
ComplimentsSaying nice things about people.
False PraiseInsincere compliments.
Constructive criticismOffering criticism in a positive way that focuses on potential improvement.
Cross-cultural communicationThe ability to communicate with people who don't share your exact cultural background and experiences.
Small talkTalking about minor topics simply to be social.
Touching baseContacting someone with small talk in order to keep a social connection alive.
Message framingCarefully crafting a message for some intended effect.
Choice architectureCarefully structuring choices for decision making.
Calibrated questioningAsking carefully crafted questions.
Closed-ended questionA question that demands specific information.
Open-ended questionA question that allows for a creative answer from any direction.
ReframingRepositioning or restating what you or someone else has said.
HumorThe use of humor to have fun, increase engagement, build rapport and convey your personality.
Inside jokesHumor that references shared experiences. Used to build rapport.
WitThe ability to say the perfect thing at the perfect time.
Cruel witThe use of wit in a fearsome or unkind way.
Criticism avoidanceCommunicating with intent to avoid criticism. Often involves saying nothing specific, helpful or useful.
MirroringMatching the tone of others when communicating with them.
Taking the high roadRefusing to allow others to drag you down to their level of behavior.
CandorVolunteering information that might be useful.
Anecdotal evidencePresenting examples as proof.
SteelmanStrengthening someone's argument before countering it.
Straw ManCountering an argument that your opponent did not make.
View from nowhereAn attempt at objectivity or fairness that is detached from reality.
Moot pointOffering unhelpful information or questions.
AnalogyExplaining one thing using its similarities to another thing.
LeadershipCommunicating to get people moving in the same direction.
Charm offensiveA communication campaign designed to increase good will.
Charismatic authorityA feeling of authority that resonates from your personal presence.
Expectation settingClearly communicating your expectations of others.
Managing expectationsDirectly communicating what you will and will not do.
Visual communicationCommunication with any visual means including images or body language.
ArtPure creative expression in a visual form.
MusicA compelling type of artistic expression that influences thoughts, mood and emotion.
MarketingUsing communication to sell.
Dumbing downOversimplifying things.
Plain languageUsing the most general and direct words to express something.
ParaphrasingSumming up something.
NuanceUsing exactly the right words often with many layers of complexity.
Civil inattentionIgnoring others to create social comfort.
False dilemmaThe incorrect assertion that there are only limited choices in a particular situation.
Self-monitoringTrying to be aware of how you are perceived.
Eye contactCommunicating with the eyes, surprisingly effective.
Body languageCommunicating with position, pose, gestures and movement.
Social cuesSubtle communication that requires much social perception to grasp.
OvercommunicationDull communication with no point or repetitive communication.
TaglineA short catchy statement that is memorable.
Rule of threeThe principle that lists of three things are usually most effective.
Peak-end ruleThe theory that people mostly remember the start and end of a speech.
Rhetorical DeviceWell known ways to influence