Checks And Balances
27 Types of IT Governance
John Spacey, December 13, 2015 updated on March 20, 2021
IT Governance is a mechanism that an organization's executive leadership uses to control and direct information technology. It is a subset of corporate governance.Processes, practices and coverage of IT Governance varies widely by organization and is shaped by factors such as industry, internal politics and organizational maturity. The following are common practices.
Application Portfolio ManagementOversight of applications at the portfolio level. In many cases, an annual health check is performed to identify risks related to legacy systems, compliance, capacity and availability.
Asset ManagementGovernance of IT asset management processes such as asset life cycle management and IT inventory management.
AuditsFinancial, technology and security audits.
BenchmarkingComparison of IT performance and costs to your industry and competition.
Business Technology AlignmentStrategic management of gaps between business needs and IT capabilities. This includes things such as products that lack IT integration and addressing business pain points with IT. An IT Governance board may sponsor initiatives to analyze gaps that act as an input to strategy formation and tactical actions.
Capability ManagementViewing business and IT as a set of capabilities. A useful technique for executive management of strategy, risk management and performance visualization.
ComplianceGovernance of IT regulatory compliance.
Enterprise ArchitectureThe practice of managing architecture at the organizational level. It is common for an enterprise architecture team to act as working level support for IT Governance. For example, they may propose practices, review project architecture and deliver analysis and reporting.
Facilities And InfrastructureGovernance related to IT facilities and infrastructure such as data centers.
Financial GovernanceFinancial controls such as budget approvals.
Information GovernanceMechanisms of information governance to support legal, risk and operational requirements. For example, roles and responsibilities such as data stewards and custodians may be established.
Information SecurityThe practice of defending your information from threats. In many cases, information security garners much attention from both Corporate Governance and IT Governance bodies.
IT OperationsGovernance of core IT processes.
Information Technology Performance ManagementMonitoring and measurement of IT performance metrics.
Information Technology PracticesEstablishment and direction of practices related to IT such as a Project Management Office.
Information Technology ProcessesEstablishment and oversight of IT processes such as service management.
Information Technology Risk ManagementIdentification and treatment of risks related to IT. Not to be confused with Risk IT, the technology capabilities used to manage business risk.
Information Technology StrategyPlanning IT strategy and setting goals.
Knowledge ManagementEstablishing and governing knowledge management practices such as the requirement that application managers and projects document their architecture.
Problems And IncidentsIt is common for an IT Governance Board to review a monthly incident report or investigate a particularly high impact incident.
ProcurementGovernance of IT procurement processes potentially with approval authority for major deals.
Programs And ProjectsReviews of programs and projects often at defined checkpoints such as budget approval and pre-launch.
Quality AssuranceGovernance of quality assurance practices such as development and testing processes.
Reporting And DashboardsA governance board may sponsor reports and dashboards to support activities such as strategy formation and risk management. Dashboards may also be developed to provide visibility into IT for corporate governance and executive management purposes.
Service Portfolio ManagementGoverning IT as a collection of services.
Standards And CertificationsDeveloping or adopting standards and governance of certification processes.
Supplier ManagementGovernance of vendor management practices.
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