My whole life is about winning. I don't lose often. I almost never lose. ~ Donald Trump
Do not pray for easy lives. Pray to be stronger men.~ John F. Kennedy [Quoting Reverend Phillips Brooks]logic.
When you have got an elephant by the hind legs and he is trying to run away, it's best to let him run. ~ Abraham Lincoln
We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win.~ John F. Kennedynorms of society and culture. For example, witty attacks that do not technically violate any rules of civility.
I wish Stanley Baldwin no ill, but it would have been much better if he had never lived.~ Winston Churchill
Active VoiceActive voice is a grammatical structure whereby a subject directly performs a verb. This makes it clear who did something and is considered a high impact way to take credit for action.
I shook up the world, I shook up the world.~ Muhammad Alicall to action is a direct demand to your audience to perform a desired action such as "buy now!"
Passive VoiceMaking what would normally be the object of a sentence the subject in order to detach a person or thing from an action. Often used to avoid blame such as "mistakes were made" as opposed to "I made a mistake."
AposiopesisThe strategic use of silence. For example, allowing a long uncomfortable silence to take place after your opponent slips up.
Drawing on my fine command of the English language, I said nothing. ~ Robert Benchley
AporiaAn expression of doubt — often feigned in order to support the very thing you are doubting.
I don't think it's proving anything, Doc. As a matter of fact, I don't even know what it means. It's just one of those things that gets in my head and keeps rolling around in there like a marble.~ Columbo, Peter Falk
HumorGenerally speaking, people prefer to be entertained rather than to consume information and think about serious problems. Humor wakes audiences up and engages them.
I did not attend his funeral, but I sent a nice letter saying I approved of it.~ Mark TwainInside jokes can also be used in a negative way to highlight that someone doesn't fit into the group.
ConcessionMaking a concession to an opponent by agreeing to part of their argument. This is often done to show that you aren't disagreeing with the strongest part of their argument but with the weakest part.
When someone tells me, 'Oh, we have so many problems on Earth; space exploration costs too much money,' I say, 'I absolutely agree with you. But I still hope we do it.' ~ Mary Roach
AnecdoteA short personal story that is often designed to build rapport with an audience. People are more easily influenced by people they find likeable.
This monstrous product of former wrongs and shame has now resolved to try to break our famous island race by a process of indiscriminate slaughter and destruction. What he has done is to kindle a fire in British hearts which will glow long after all traces of the conflagration he has caused in London have been removed.~ Winston Churchill (Sept. 11, 1940 radio address responding to the bombing of London by Germany)
Second PersonSecond person perspective is a tool of influence because it frames everything in terms of the audience using "you" and "your." This is considered more effective than first person pronouns such as "I" or third person pronouns such as "he", "she" and "it."
Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery.~ Redemption Song, Bob Marley
RhythmPatterns in the structure of your speech or writing. The primary type of rhythm is the length of your sentences. Long sentences are comfortable and establish flow. Short sentences have more impact.
You have to be smart. The easy days are over. ~ Robert Kiyosaki
RepetitionRepetition is the repeated use of the same words or sentence structure. This is typical of both terrible and brilliant writing. In the latter case, repetition is done to create effect and transfer meaning.
Hatred was spreading everywhere, blood was being spilled everywhere, wars were breaking out everywhere.~ Shusaku Endo
AdageA concise statement that most people would accept as true and meaningful. Where an adage is a traditional saying, it is known as a proverb. Widely overused adages can be considered cliches. For example, "Rome wasn't built in a day." less dramatic way than expected given the context. Tends to garner respect.
UndertoneEstablishing a non-obvious theme to your work that conveys meaning that might be too brash or politically dangerous to say directly. For example, a presentation of a business plan at a company that subtly suggests that the firm's leadership is incompetent.fair game. For example, a comedy skit that uses parody to portray political leaders as foolish.remarkable speech by Noah "Soggy" Sweat.slippery slope is important as they do indeed exist.
I think it would be a mistake for social media companies to try to, on their own, determine or deign what is a fake news story and what isn't and shut it off, or what's a good news organization or a bad news organization. That's a very, very slippery slope.~ Vivian Schillersome other wrong. For example, suggesting it is right for your country to pollute the environment because some other country does it.
Should a smack as part of good parental correction be a criminal offense in New Zealand?~ 2009 referendum on corporal punishment in New Zealand (considered a loaded question because it specifically implies that hitting a child is good parenting)only limited options where there are in fact many. This often takes the form of labeling anyone who doesn't agree with you.
Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.~ George W. Bush
What can you do with a man who looks like a female llama surprised when bathing?~ Winston Churchill (speaking of Charles de Gaulle)chewbacca defense.
Card StackingOstensibly presenting both sides of an argument but presenting one side with strong evidence and the other with weak evidence.gentle suggestions and interaction than commands and declarations. For example:
You should think about your actions and start behaving responsibly to save the planet!
We must to save the environment now!
Can you think of any ways to reduce pollution?
Non-violent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and establish such creative tension that a community that has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored... I am not afraid of the word tension. I have earnestly worked and preached against violent tension, and there is a type of constructive tension that is necessary for growth.~ Martin Luther King, Jr.mastery learning.
Double-barreled QuestionA question that contains two parts with one part being contentious and the other being non-contentious. By answering yes, a respondent looks like they are agreeing to the contentious part of the question. By answering no, a respondent looks like they are disagreeing with the non-contentious part of the question. The only safe route is to challenge the question itself. For example:
Are you satisfied with your pay and me as a manager?Glittering generalities can be effective nonetheless because people tend to think in emotional ways. For example, "this plan will give hope to hardworking families – decent people who respect others."disconnected from reality and poorly structured that it is difficult to counter with logic.
|Overview: Rhetorical Device|
A technique that a writer or speaker uses to persuade.