Backward induction is the process of reasoning backwards starting with potential conclusions. The steps that can reach each potential conclusion are mapped out in a backwards fashion. These paths are then evaluated according to your goals.
Backwards induction tends to be a lot of work because there are often many paths that can get you to each potential conclusion. It is often used as a method of artificial intelligence. For example, the classic way for a computer to play chess is by backward induction.
Function  Problem SolvingStrategy  Value  Calculating the probability of success for each potential strategy given constraints such as your current position, rules of play and your goals.  Direction  Topdown beginning with theories, conclusions or potential future states  Uncertainty  Allows for logically uncertain conclusions and best guesses  Similar Techniques  Inductive ReasoningAbductive ReasoningGame Theory 
Thinking
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