Backward induction is the process of reasoning backwards starting with potential conclusions. The steps that can reach each potential conclusion are mapped out in a backwards fashion. These paths are then evaluated according to your goals.
Backwards induction tends to be a lot of work because there are often many paths that can get you to each potential conclusion. It is often used as a method of artificial intelligence. For example, the classic way for a computer to play chess is by backward induction.
Calculating the probability of success for each potential strategy given constraints such as your current position, rules of play and your goals.
Top-down beginning with theories, conclusions or potential future states
Allows for logically uncertain conclusions and best guesses
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