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# 8 Examples of Logical Arguments

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A logical argument is the use of informal logic in a natural language to support a claim or conclusion. This should not be viewed as a magical path to truth and validity as logic can suffer from problems such as invalid data, disputable premises, fallacies and neglect of grey areas. The following are illustrative examples of a logical argument.

## Practical

Practical logic is based on three components: claim, grounds and warrant. A claim is your conclusion, grounds are supporting evidence and a warrant shows how the evidence maps to the claim.
Claim: Tokyo is rainy.
Grounds:: London is considered rainy.
Grounds:: Tokyo gets 1,530 millimeters of rain a year.
Grounds: London gets 584 millimeters of rain a year.
Warrant: Average annual rainfall is a strong indicator of whether a city is rainy.

## Premises

Any facts, assertions, probabilities or data inserted into an argument can be viewed as a logical premise that makes your argument somewhat logical. This often takes the form of "conclusion because premise."
They were a bad employer because they didn't treat the customer with respect.

## Deductive

Deducing your conclusion from a set of premises using deductive reasoning.
A: Toronto is in Canada
B: Alice lives in Toronto
C: Alice lives in Canada

## Inductive

Suggesting a probable conclusion based on the probability of premises.
A: Most Canadians like Hockey
B: Alice is Canadian
Conclusion: Alice probably likes hockey

## Extrapolation

Estimating the future based on current or historical observations.
Premise: The economy has faced dozens of recessions and recovered each time.
Conclusion: The economy will recover again.

## Analogy

Analogy, particularly metaphors, can be used to construct complex inductive arguments by suggesting that two entities are essentially the same in some way.
Premise (metaphor): The Earth is a living organism.
Premise: Organisms can become ill and die.
Conclusion: The Earth can become ill and die.

## Cold Logic

Cold logic is a logical argument that neglects human society, culture, values and emotion. This isn't likely to get you anywhere with people.
Premise: Cats consume resources such as food.
Premise: Cats do not contribute to economic production.
Premise: It is a waste to spend resources without creating economic value.
Conclusion: Cats are a waste of resources.

## Fallacy

Fallacies are flaws in logic. These can be complex and difficult to detect. As such, most of the work of having a logical conversation or constructing a logical argument is vetting logic for fallacies.
A: Our AI detected that Eric was cheating on the test.
B: Our AI scanned 1 million students.
C: Only one student was actually cheating.
D: Our AI has a 1% false positive rate.
Conclusion: There is only a 1% chance Eric is innocent.
The above conclusion suffers from the Prosecutor's Fallacy. The AI scanned 1 million students with a 1% false positive rate. This means that 10,000 students were falsely identified as cheaters. Only one student actually cheated so that means there is a 9,999:1 chance that Eric is innocent or 99.99%.

### Notes

Cold logic is a type of fallacy as it neglects human realities.
 Overview: Logical Argument Type Definition The use of informal logic in a natural language to support an argument. Related Concepts

## Thinking

This is the complete list of articles we have written about thinking.
Abductive Reasoning
Abstract Thinking
Abstraction
Aesthetics
Analogy
Analysis Paralysis
Analytical Thinking
Anomie
Argument
Argument From Silence
Arrow Of Time
Assertions
Automaticity
Backward Induction
Base Rate Fallacy
Benefit Of Doubt
Big Picture
Brainstorming
Call To Action
Catch 22
Causality
Choice Architecture
Circular Reasoning
Cognition
Cognitive Abilities
Cognitive Biases
Cold Logic
Collective Intelligence
Complexity Bias
Concept
Consciousness
Constructive Criticism
Convergent Thinking
Counterfactual Thinking
Creative Tension
Creeping Normality
Critical Thinking
Culture
Curse Of Knowledge
Decision Fatigue
Decision Framing
Decision Making
Defensive Pessimism
Design Thinking
Divergent Thinking
Educated Guess
Emotional Intelligence
Epic Meaning
Essential Complexity
Excluded Middle
Failure Of Imagination
Fallacies
Fallacy Fallacy
False Analogy
False Balance
False Dichotomy
False Equivalence
First Principles
Formal Logic
Four Causes
Fuzzy Logic
Gambler's Fallacy
Generalization
Golden Hammer
Good Judgement
Grey Area
Groupthink
Heuristics
Hindsight Bias
Hope
Idealism
Ideas
If-By-Whiskey
Illogical Success
Imagination
Independent Thinking
Inductive Reasoning
Inference
Influencing
Informal Logic
Information
Information Cascade
Introspection
Intuition
Inventive Step
Learning
Lifestyle
Logic
Logical Argument
Logical Thinking
Ludic Fallacy
Magical Thinking
Meaning
Mental Experiences
Mental State
Mindset
Misuse of Statistics
Motivated Reasoning
Natural Language
Nirvana Fallacy
Norms
Not Even Wrong
Objective Reason
Objectivity
Opinion
Overthinking
Perception
Personal Values
Perspective
Positive Thinking
Practical Thinking
Pragmatism
Premise
Problem Solving
Proof By Example
Propositional Logic
Prosecutor's Fallacy
Radical Chic
Rational Thought
Realism
Reality
Reason
Reasoning
Red Herring
Reflective Thinking
Reification
Relativism
Salience
Scarcity Mindset
Scientism
Selective Attention
Serendipity
Situational Awareness
Sour Grapes
State Of Mind
Storytelling
Subjectivity
Systems Thinking
Thinking
Thought Experiment
Unknown Unknowns
Visual Thinking
Want To Believe
Whataboutism
Win-Win Thinking
Wishful Thinking
Worldview
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## Logic

A few logic terms explained.

## False Balance

The definition of false balance with examples.

## Grey Area

Common examples of grey areas.

## Automaticity

The definition of automaticity with examples.

## Fact

A list of approaches for establishing facts.

## Intrapersonal vs Interpersonal

The difference between intrapersonal and interpersonal explained.

## Paradox

The definition of paradox with examples.

## Falsifiability

The definition of falsifiability with examples.

## Fallacies

A list of logical fallacies.

## Slippery Slope

The definition of slippery slope with examples.

## Weasel Words

The definition of weasel word with examples.

## Straw Man

The definition of straw man with examples.

## Cherry Picking

The definition of cherry picking with examples.

## Argument From Ignorance

The definition of argument from ignorance with examples.

## Nirvana Fallacy

The definition of nirvana fallacy with examples.

## Halo Effect

The definition of halo effect with examples.

## Confirmation Bias

The definition of confirmation bias with examples.

## Gaslighting

The definition of gaslighting with examples.
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