Objective reason is logical or intuitive thought that adapts a neutral perspective. This implies that you attempt to evaluate facts, unknowns and grey areas with an impartial perspective that considers all evidence. The following are illustrative examples of objective reason.
Deductive reasoning is top-down logic that begins with a theory and works to test the theory against information. This may involve research and experimentation. For example, a farmer who postulates that a companion planting of marigolds may deter aphids so they try it in a test plot.
Inductive reasoning is bottom-up logic that begins with observations and works towards a theory. This type of logic doesn't allow for guesses and requires that the theory be supported by observations. Although this type of logic is rigorous it can still be wrong. For example, it is common to confuse correlation and causation when working bottom-up.
Abductive reasoning is bottom-up logic that allows for guesses where there is uncertainty. For example, a farmer who has a damaged crop in a particular field who investigates to find that aphids appear to be the culprit.
Intuitive ReasoningIntuition is thought that originates with the unconscious mind such that the thinker is unaware of how it was formed. More broadly, the term intuitive reasoning is used for informal thought processes that aren't as systematic as logic. For example, a farmer who feels it is about to rain because of a smell in the air that often occurs before rain.
Verbal ReasoningVerbal reasoning is the use of a language to think. Natural languages such as English or Mandarin provide a rich vocabulary of concepts that can be used to model and solve problems. For example, a business person who uses the concept of competitive advantage to develop a strategy.
Visual ReasoningVisual reasoning is the process of thinking in pictures. For example, a mover who can tell by looking at a house how large a truck is required by visualizing how furniture and boxes could be placed in the 3d space of a truck.
FactsA fact is an item of information that can be reasonably viewed as true based on evidence, argument and review. For example, it is a fact that the planet Earth is an oblate spheroid that is approximately a sphere. According to the scientific method, theories and laws can always be challenged and are never set in stone. However, a well-accepted scientific theory or law and be viewed as fact.
First PrinciplesFirst principles are foundational rules and models that are broadly applicable. For example, the attractiveness principle is the theory that a certain percentage of the population will dislike every artwork, media item, story and design no matter how good it may be such that there is no reason to improve further if most people like your work.
FallaciesA fallacy is logic that can be shown to be flawed. Reasoning that is disciplined and systematic can still produce flawed logic. As such, knowledge of common fallacies can improve your reasoning. Likewise, peer review and debate that exposes your reasoning to criticism can help to identify fallacies.
Cold LogicCold logic is reason that neglects human factors such as emotion, culture and the human experience. For example, an analysis of a disease treatment that only considers money without any consideration of the quality of life of patients.
View From NowhereA view from nowhere occurs when you try so hard to be objective that you miss the point. This has several variations, including false balance whereby you incorrectly portray two opposing viewpoints as being equally valid. For example, "Some people believe that the Sun is approximately 4.6 billion years old while others believe it is 3 days old."
Objective vs SubjectiveAn objective thought process is neutral and impartial. A subjective thought process is colored by your worldview, emotions, opinions, attitudes and position. The difference between these two states isn't always clear. At one extreme, it can be argued that humans inherently think in a subjective way such that each individual is bound to their own unique point of view. It can also be argued that humans have a great capacity of objectivity where they make an effort to adopt a neutral viewpoint.
This is the complete list of articles we have written about thinking.
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An overview of thinking with examples.
The definition of subjectivity with examples.
The definition of a view from nowhere with examples.
The definition of worldview with examples.
The definition of reason with examples.
The definition of educated guess with examples.
The definition of selective attention with examples.
A list of common emotions.
The definition of win-win thinking with examples.
A list of thinking approaches and types.
An overview of nostalgia with examples.
The definition of intrapersonal with examples.
The definition of introspection with examples.
The definition of paradox with examples.
The definition of skepticism with examples.
The definition of abstract thinking with examples.
The definition of rational choice theory with examples.
The principles of positive thinking.
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