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45 Examples of Management By Results

Management by results is the process of managing employees in terms of measurable results alone. This would allow employees greater work freedom by forgoing qualitative elements of management. Management by results can include internal performance metrics and outcomes as followed.

Performance Metrics

Indicators of an employee's performance that are independent of business results.
Productivity rate
Work throughput
Response times
Turnaround time
On-time performance
Schedule variance
Budget variance
Defect rate
Error rate
Quality scores
Peer feedback
Stakeholder feedback


The focus of management by results is to try to measure performance in terms of business outcomes. The following are examples of outcome KPIs.
Revenue and revenue growth rate
Gross margins
Net margins
Market share
Customer satisfaction
Customer complaints
Customer churn
Customer lifetime value
Customer acquisition cost
Customer loyalty
Brand recognition
Brand awareness
Risk exposure
Cost reduction
Cost of quality
Customer perceptions of quality
Adoption rate of products, services, features and functions
Throughput such as units per hour
Time to market
Turnaround time
Cycle time
Cost per result such as cost per lead
Conversion rate
Engagement rate
Resource efficiency
Incident rate
Reliability rate
Inventory turnover ratio
Inventory stockout rate
Return on investment
Safety incident rate
Compliance rate
Corporate social responsibility measures such as energy consumption
Management by results is prone to be careful what you measure problems where employees will heavily optimize for anything that is measured at the expense of anything that is not. For example, if you measure the performance of salespeople by how much revenue they close they may ignore data entry or post-sales customer relationships and satisfaction.
Next: Business Outcomes
More about management by results:
Business Outcomes
Goal Setting
Management Outcomes
Performance Management
Project Outcomes
Team Outcomes
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